Education and Counseling for Individuals Affected by Autism Spectrum Disorders


Helping Teachers To Understand Your Aspergers Child


My son has been diagnosed with Asperger's and we are now working with the middle school for their evaluation processes to approve special education help. They are specifically stating that they do not believe the diagnosis based on observations of my son interacting with other children at school and being the 'life of the party' basically for the group.

I have tried to explain that this behavior is his way of coping with the lunchroom situation as a learned behavior and that he is not actually experiencing the situation the same way they are based on his comments to me at home each day about his interactions with the other students. How do I get these educated people to listen to lowly me, mom, and get him the help he needs that they seem to want to deny?


I’m assuming you have already started the IEP process (if not, type “IEP” in the search box above for more information).

I would get a note from the doctor who diagnosed your child with Aspergers so the teachers can verify (this will help establish some credibility). Then you should provide teachers with an information sheet to help educate them about Aspergers. Below is a sample information sheet that you can tailor to your individual needs. It should help teachers understand and deal with some of the everyday questions that come up regarding Aspergers:


Dear _______,

I am _____'s mother. My son has been diagnosed with Aspergers, which is a neurobiological disorder on the autistic spectrum. Kids with ASPERGERS may have difficulty using and understanding nonverbal behaviors and developing appropriate peer relationships, in part, because their interactions often lack spontaneous exchange. While they often have keen interests and skills in certain subjects, they also may have a great deal of difficulty with organization. ASPERGERS kids may appear to lack in empathy, have difficulty with sensory issues and very often strongly rely on routine.

Our son has many positive characteristics. However, listed below are some issues that may become apparent to you as you work with him. Many of the behaviors you will see are NOT under his control and they are not a result of malice or willful misbehavior. At times our son simply does not innately know how to appropriately respond.

No doubt, you will learn other strategies which will be helpful and we would appreciate your sharing with us. Please call us at any time if you have questions about our son or Aspergers. We can be reached at: __________

General Behaviors—

• At times, our son may experience "meltdowns" when nothing may help behavior. At times like this, please allow a "safe and quiet spot" where our son will be allowed to "cool off" Try to take note of what occurred before the meltdown (was it an unexpected change in routine, for example) and it's best to talk "after" the situation has calmed down.
• Foster a classroom atmosphere that supports the acceptance of differences and diversity.
• Generally speaking, an adult speaking in a calm voice will reap many benefits
• It is important to remember that, just because the youngster learns something in one situation, this doesn't automatically mean that he remembers or is able to generalize the learning to new situations.
• Note strengths often and visually. This will give our son the courage to keep on plugging.
• Our son may have vocal outbursts or shriek. Be prepared for them, especially when having a difficult time. Also, please let the other kids know that this is a way of dealing with stress or fear.
• Our son may need help with problem-solving situations. Please be willing to take the time to help with this.
• Our son reacts well to positive and patient styles of teaching.
• Aspergers is characterized by a sort of "Swiss cheese" type of development: that is, some things are learned age-appropriately, while other things may lag behind or be absent. Furthermore, kids may have skills years ahead of normal development (for example, a youngster may understand complex mathematics principles, yet not be able to remember to bring their homework home).
• When dividing up assignments, please assign teams rather than have the other kids "choose members", because this increases the chances that our son will be left out or teased.
• When it reaches a point that things in the classroom are going well, it means that we've gotten it right. It doesn't mean that our son is "cured", "never had a problem" or that "it's time to remove support". Increase demands gradually.
• When you see anger or other outbursts, our son is not being deliberately difficult. Instead, this is in a "fight/fright/flight" reaction. Think of this as an "electrical circuit overload" Prevention can sometimes head off situations if you see the warning signs coming.


• Allowing our son to write down the question or thought and providing a response in writing may break the stresses/cycle.
• It is more helpful if you avoid being pulled into this by answering the same thing over and over or raising your voice or pointing out that the question is being repeated. Instead, try to redirect our son's attention or find an alternative way so he can save face.
• Our son may repeat the same thing over and over again, and you may find that this increases as stress increases.


• Giving one or two warnings before a change of activity or schedule may be helpful
• Our son may have a great deal of difficulty with transitions. Having a picture or word schedule may be helpful.
• Please try to give as much advance notice as possible if there is going to be a change or disruption in the schedule.

Sensory Motor Skills/Auditory Processing—

• Breaking directions down into simple steps is quite helpful
• Directions are more easily understood if they are repeated clearly, simply and in a variety of ways.
• Our son has difficulty understanding a string of directions or too many words at one time
• Our son may act in a very clumsy way; he may also react very strongly to certain tastes, textures, smells and sounds.
• Speaking slower and in smaller phrases can help.
• Using picture cures or directions may also help


• Allow him to "move about" as sitting still for long periods of time can be very difficult (even a 5 minute walk around, with a peer can help a lot).
• He may get over-stimulated by loud noises, lights, strong tastes or textures, because of the heightened sensitivity to these things.
• Unstructured times (such as lunch, break and PE) may prove to be the most difficult for him. Please try to help provide some guidance during these more difficult times.
• With lots of other kids, chaos and noise, please try to help him find a quiet spot to which he can go for some "solace".

Visual Cues—

• Hand signals may be helpful, especially to reinforce certain messages, such as "wait your turn", "stop talking" (out of turn), or "speak more slowly or softly".
• Some ASPERGERS kids learn best with visual aids, such as picture schedules, written directions or drawings (other kids may do better with verbal instruction)


• When someone tries to help by finishing his sentences or interrupting, he often has to go back and start over to get the train of thought back.
• At times, it may take more than few seconds for my son to respond to questions. He needs to stop what he's thinking, put that somewhere, formulate an answer and then respond. Please wait patiently for the answer and encourage others to do the same. Otherwise, he will have to start over again.

Eye Contact—

• Unlike most of us, sometimes forcing eye contact breaks his concentration
• He may actually hear and understand you better if not forced to look directly at your eyes.
• At times, it looks as if my son is not listening to you when he really is. Don't assume that because he is not looking at you that he is not hearing you.

Social Skills and Friendships—

• Talking with the other members of the class may help, if done in a positive way and with the permission of the family. For example, talking about the fact that many or most of us have challenges and that the ASPERGERS youngster’s challenge is that he cannot read social situations well, just as others may need glasses or hearing aids.
• Identifying 1 or 2 empathetic children who can serve as "buddies" will help the youngster feel as though the world is a friendlier place
• Herein lays one of the biggest challenges for ASPERGERS kids. They may want to make friends very badly, yet not have a clue as to how to go about it.
• Children with Aspergers may be at greater risk for becoming "victims" of bullying behavior by other children. This is caused by a couple of factors:

1. Asperger kids want to be included and/or liked so badly that they are reluctant to "tell" on the bully, fearing rejection from the perpetrator or other children.
2. There is a great likelihood that the response or "rise" that the "bully" gets from the Asperger youngster reinforces this kind of behavior


• Let him know, if possible, when there will be a substitute teacher or a field trip occurring during regular school hours.
• Please let our son know of any anticipated changes as soon as you know them, especially with picture or word schedules.
• This is very important to most ASPERGERS kids, but can be very difficult to attain on a regular basis in our world.


• Sarcasm and some forums of humor are often not understood by my son. Even explanations of what is meant may not clarify, because the perspectives of ASPERGERS youngster can be unique and, at times, immovable.
• Although his vocabulary and use of language may seem high, ASPERGERS kids may not know the meaning of what they are saying even though the words sound correct.

Organizational Skills—

• If necessary allow him to copy the notes of other kids or provide him with a copy. Many ASPERGERS kids are also dysgraphic and they are unable to listen to you talk, read the board and take notes at the same time.
• It may be helpful to develop schedules (picture or written) for him.
• Our son lacks the ability of remember a lot of information or how to retrieve that information for its use.
• Please post schedules and homework assignments on the board and make a copy for him. Please make sure that these assignments get put into his backpack because he can't always be counted on to get everything home without some help.

In conclusion, please know that at times, some of my son's behaviors may be aggravating and annoying to you and to members of his class. Please know that this is normal and expected. Try not to let the difficult days color the fact that YOU are a wonderful teacher with a challenging situation and that nothing works all of the time (and some things don't even work most of the time). You will also be treated to a new and very unique view of the world that will entertain and fascinate you at times. Please feel free to share with us whatever you would like. We have heard it before. It will not shock us or make us think poorly of you. Communication is the key and by working together as a team we can provide the best for our son.

Thank you,

Parent’s Name: __________


Here is a real example, based on the template above, of an information sheet that one parent hand-delivered to her child’s teacher.

Dear Mrs. Shroud,

My child, Michael _____, has Aspergers. This means his patterns of thought and behavior will be a little different than you may be used to. Here are some issues that may come up, along with some suggestions:

My Aspergers child may have additional difficulty with:

• Balance
• Multiple step directions
• Multi-tasking
• Organization
• Tics and odd mannerisms (humming, repetitive motions, rocking, etc.)
• Transitions
• Unstructured time

Lists and visual aids are a great way to help with some of these challenges. Break down complex tasks into simpler steps, if possible, and please understand that multi-tasking (e.g., reading, answering questions, and filling out worksheet at the same time) simply may not be possible. Aspergers children thrive on routine and predictability.

Fine motor skills will affect:

• Button and shoe lacing skills
• Handwriting skills
• Scissor skills
• The ability to color within the lines

Please understand that handwriting is especially difficult and even painful for my Aspergers child. He is not slacking or messy on purpose, but working slowly to improve a difficult skill.

Meltdowns may occur because:

• Bad surprises can overwhelm and panic my child
• My child is easily frustrated and upset
• Time pressure and/or stress can cause panic
• Too much noise and activity can over-stimulate him

Please stay calm. If it looks like my child is getting worked up, don’t ignore him – he never pretends and it will only get worse. He is not falling apart on purpose, and has no idea what he looks like. This is not a bid for attention, but a very real feeling of frustration and panic. Please help him find a solution – even if it seems obvious – to the problem at hand.

My Aspergers child’s literal thinking makes it difficult for him to understand:

• Nuance and sarcasm
• Sayings/proverbs and sometimes jokes
• Shades of grey
• When rules do not apply

Aspergers children can be bossy and even offensive in reminding everyone of the rules. Their inflexibility is not a mask or pretense, but an inability to understand shades of grey.

Please be consistent with any rules, and clearly state when they do not apply. Remind my child that the rules apply the same to everyone. Help guide him when any situation presents shades of grey or nuance, to avoid confusion, misunderstandings, and/or meltdowns.

Social Skills Challenges will mean:

• Difficulty recognizing facial expression, tone of voice, and body language
• He does not automatically glance at others to check which task/page/worksheet needs to be done at the moment
• He may not stay with the group or do what the group is doing
• Inability to automatically understand how others are thinking or feeling
• Little to no eye contact
• Unintentional inappropriate behavior
• Volume control and/or monotone voice

This means that teamwork and cooperating in groups will be challenging for my Aspergers child. He will not always recognize when someone’s behavior is offensive (including his own), and will not understand when others become upset or even cruel.

Please be patient and help facilitate understanding on all sides. Speak clearly and avoid body language; use speech to get any points across, and don’t assume he understands what is happening socially. Watch out for bullying/teasing, misunderstandings, wandering, and ostracism.

Some common positives for Aspergers:

• Honesty and directness
• Intelligence
• Intense interest in facts and details
• Keen visual memory
• Love of learning (especially when the subject appeals)
• Think-outside-the-box mentality

Thank you!


Virginia _______


•    Anonymous said... My son is also HFA and is currently in an all-inclusion community classroom. This is working very well for him because the class and teachers are geared to work with and educate our children along with neurotypical children. All the children are hand-picked to be in this class and the parents want their kids there too. It's an excellent program.
•    Anonymous said... I've talked to every teacher my son has ever had till I was blue in the face...all requests for visual learning were ignored. I homeschool him now and he is so much happier learning the way he can understand it best...visually.
•    Anonymous said... In my area, there is a programme called Earlybird Plus which is a 12 week course attended by the parent and the teacher so you can both learn about Autism together. I was referred into it by my local CAMHS
•    Anonymous said... All good except if teacher is old school really doesn't bel children have learning delays thinking they can teach anyone and it's the parenting. Also old school teaching has the idea of my way or the highway. Not realising auditory learning may not be as effective for a visual learner.

Please post your comment below…


Anonymous said...

Unfortunately I've found that the schools will do anything (they know all the loop holes) to keep from giving a child a 'tag'. They either don't have enough trained teachers, aides, or money. It took us 5 doctors and 3 years to get our child diagnosis. If a counselor did the diagnosis, you'll need to find a Child Development Clinic or a Child Psychiatrist. It may help if you got a second opinion from a doctor of your choice. Now, the school is willing to do their own testing and even pay for an outside doctor to do the test. Insist on a doctor with a good reputation, otherwise, they'll send the child to someone who's not good at diagnosing it. Making sure that you have the correct physician would be a good topic write about.

Anonymous said...

Here is a question I have; why, when the educators hear the word Autism/Aspergers, they drop the pen?

My father, sister and I have Aspergers, but went to school before it was known of. So we 3 were taught to print and do cursive. We hand wrote well enough, and fast enough, to keep up with note taking and turning in handwritten papers. When my nephew and son were diagnosed, the taught them block writing and only did cursive for one week. After that, they went straight to dictation, then to computers. There was no effort to teach them. An here, with my son in 8th grade, the school is finally listening to me. My son has a 3rd/4th grade reading level, does not have full comprehension of what he’s reading (doesn’t see how events influence each other) and has a 2nd grade spelling level. As for typing – he failed it. Turns out that he is the type of child that need to learn to read and spell through handwriting – specifically cursive.

Then there’s the excuse that we’re in the electronic age and no one write anything anymore. I work for a big university and I see plenty of handwriting among the staff and teachers. The only reason you see students walking around with laptops all the time is because the classroom requires it. I’ve beaten modern kids typing of notes on the computer with my handwriting. On a laptop, you can’t do list, sketches, arrows drawn up to a previous note. A sketch, in its self, can say/explain a concept far easier and faster than if you tried to write/type it.

Anonymous said...

I think my biggest concern is that we are dealing with educators that have never 'seen' Asperger's before, and are therefore convinced that none of the outbursts, meltdowns, etc. are related to it. How do you make people understand that although there may be good days, meltdowns are really a part of things and not willful disobedience and defiance, or as it was put today, a "temper tantrum"?

Anonymous said...

Thank you so much for sharing such a helpful template to "educate" our teachers about Aspergers. I would appreciate if you could also write an article about educating teachers about the meltdowns AFTER school or at home... and helping teachers be less judgmental about our parenting! My son's teacher told me our son was "only oppositional with me and he's fine at school" and that I need to figure that out in therapy. She is placing the sole blame on me as a parent, with no understanding of his special needs. Our kids hold it together all day, are overstimulated and exhausted by the end of the day... of course, they're going to MELT! And of course, they're going to melt with the safest, most unconditional person... their mother/father. I've heard from other parents of kids with Aspergers with this same issue. I would appreciate hearing about similar experiences or advice.

Anonymous said...

I wish to God above that I had stumbled across this information when I was struggling with educators trying to get help for my son. I feel our family was thrust into the home school situation we are in everyday now because of the lack of willingness on educators parts to accept and understand the diagnosis just as we as parents were struggling to do. Their lack of understand led to an assault which has led to damage to my son's love of learning!

Anonymous said...

I would also like to see an article about meltdowns after school. My son has never melted down at school, but has a horrible time at home. We were fortunate to have had an excellent elementary school that was able to help with an at home behavior chart with rewards and consequences at school. But when I mentioned doing a similar thing in Middle school, the "special ed" teachers were just confused. They had never even heard that it was very common for Aspergers children to meltdown at home-arrgh! I am going to try to work with the school with the help of our new behavioral psychologist and any articles on the topic would be very helpful

Lisa Z said...

We are also very experienced with those after school meltdowns. It's one big reason why we send our 13-year old Aspie/HFA son to school just in the morning and homeschool in the afternoon. The modified schedule really works, though we are hoping to build his tolerance for school so he can attend for more hours in high school. I would love to know some ideas to help build that tolerance for a longer school day. I'm thinking sensory help during the school day, and possibly modifying his schedule in other ways at school might help.

Anonymous said...

Terrific work! This is the type of information that should be shared around the web. Shame on the search engines for not positioning this post higher!

Anonymous said...

Hello Mr. Hutten,

I need help. I have a 12 year old, 6th grade son, who is one of seven children in his family. He is incredibly explosive at home and doing miserable at school (he goes to Catholic school). We were told he has asperger’s by his psychologist and psychiatrist last year. We are on a waiting list with Children’s Mercy hospital for an official evaluation.

Are there any professionals that you would recommend that help with asperger’s in the Kansas City/Lee’s Summit, MO area that may have immediate availability and know exactly what they are doing to help us?

Are their free resources that we could use to help educate his teachers? Our son is in the 6th grade but reads at the 3rd grade reading level. He knows he is behind but will not accept help. I need help in helping the teachers interact with him. It is hard to recommend when I am not an educator and we have so many struggles of our own working with him to even complete so of the homework he comes home with.

Your direction would be appreciated.

Thank you,

Mark said...

Re: Are there any professionals that you would recommend that help with asperger’s in the Kansas City/Lee’s Summit, MO area that may have immediate availability and know exactly what they are doing to help us?

Try looking here:

Re: Are their free resources that we could use to help educate his teachers?

Go to and type "helping teachers' in the search box.

Good luck,


Anonymous said...

How do I get my son challenged in school, and the school to work around his Aspergers?

My 8 year old son was recently diagnosed with Aspergers. Academically he has never had a challenge. The most frustrating part for me is trying to tell that teachers he knows this stuff, and he's not being challenged.. but I get the same old song and dance.. that they will evaluate him the first 3 months and tell me if things neeed to change. Obviously, they never do.. and my son sits in class already knowing most of the things being taught.. then when grades come along.. he only gets a 3.. when he was doing it long before they even taught it in class.. and miraculously.. he gets better as the year goes on.. no child left behind? What about the ones who are being held back because they possibly help the school look better?

Now, socially my son has a hard time with the kids. I received phone calls quite a bit in 2nd grade with my son getting in kids faces,talking and disrupting the class. I talked with my son, grounded him from things, spanked him.. and I'm just now finally have an answer to all this chaos, Aspergers! I'm almost relieved, because I couldn't explain why he would do certain things. Now.. how do I contact the school.. who do I contact to get this kid challenged and tested? He's entering 3rd grade, and is asking me to teach him algebra and square roots, he already knows the basics of both. Reading wise... I'd bet he's at high school level.. he's just a human sponge. Dinosaurs, Astronomy, mathematics, skyscrapers, rollercoasters..he can and will tell you all sorts of facts that most high schoolers don't know. lol

I'm trying to teach him how to ride a bike.. and this is where it gets hairy.. he thinks because everything comes easy, it should be a piece of cake.. but we all know riding a bike isn't quite that easy. Now, I can't get him to try at all because he says he can't do it.

My fear is my son will have a melt down once school gets tougher.. when he finally doesn't know everything and he has to work for it. I know I just unleashed alot in this question, but it all boils down to me being frustrated. I'm trying to get what's best for my son at his school, but I'm just not really sure who to talk to and what to say or to ask to get my son what he needs. If anyone has a set protocol of how to handle this.. please tell me so I can be a good advocate for my childs education. I humbly accept that I'm clueless when it comes to the school system and how it works. Thank you for your time!

Anonymous said...

What do i do when a teacher and school is not understanding on how to deal with a child with Aspergers syndrom. We have looked into homeschooling are 6 year old but can not afford it at this time. I have approached the school board on this matter and they told me that they would look into it. At the first parent teacher meeting i have asked my sons new teacher if she had read his file she said no i do not need to because i will get to know him on my own. When i told her that my son has Aspergers she said she will deal with it her own way. When i asked the school if i could get a new teacher they denied me. The problem that i see is that the school system in Fayetteville NC does not know on how to deal with a child with Aspergers sysndrom and when i talk to them and try and give them some options that they can do in order to help my son they always tell me no we will have to do this are way. Nobody is listening to me and i am at my witts end with this.

Anonymous said...

Angela Pascuali Thank you so much i have printed out the template and i will defently share it with my sons school.
22 hours ago · Like
Wendy Layne Windrich I checked for you but NC does not currently offer FREE online public school. They are adding them all the time. Keep watching for - We are using k12 in Texas for our daughter because it's free and it's public school. She does all her work from home on a computer or printouts and has teachers as well so I'm just a learning coach.
19 hours ago · Like
Angela Pascuali Thank you Wendy for checking for me , i will defently keep a look out for that. It is a shame that NC does not offer it.
19 hours ago · Like
Lynn Mulder Sounds like you need to go to the next step up which would be the state board of education. The school is just pushing you around. They know they have to provide your child with an appropriate education but unless they are made to they are not going to. Call the dept. Of Ed. for your state and let them know what's going on. I think you will be surprised how fast the school starts to listen! It worked for me. They still try at times to bully me, but I just remind them that I am not going away.

Anonymous said...

Exactly what I was looking for... I will use this as an example and send it to summer school with him on Monday... actually, I'll hand deliver it to his teacher! :)

megan clark said...

Thank you for this post! I found it very informational and helpful! I plan on printing this out and hanging it in my classroom! I teach four year olds at a private school and have personally never had a child in my class with Asperger's syndrome until this school year. This child was diagnosed by a specialist at my school only a few weeks ago. The part that frustrates me the most is that this child's parents claims there is nothing wrong with their child. They believe their child's meltdowns and other social struggles are not a sign/symptom of Asperger's, but rather all discipline problems!! They have told me multiple times their child is just bad and needs to be disciplined more! I know they are probably just going through denial, but I feel like they are letting too much time go by without trying to figure out the best ways to help their child. My assistant and myself have taken it upon ourselves to collect all of the information we can about Asperger's syndrome so that we can better help this child even if it only is in the classroom. So thank you again for is wonderful information!!

Ashley Hawks said...

Thank you for this info

My child has been rejected by his peers, ridiculed and bullied !!!

Social rejection has devastating effects in many areas of functioning. Because the Aspergers child tends to internalize how others treat him, rejection damages self-esteem and often causes anxiety and depression. As the child feels worse about himself and becomes more anxious and depressed – he performs worse, socially and intellectually.

Click here to read the full article…

How to Prevent Meltdowns in Aspergers Children

Meltdowns are not a pretty sight. They are somewhat like overblown temper tantrums, but unlike tantrums, meltdowns can last anywhere from ten minutes to over an hour. When it starts, the Asperger's child is totally out-of-control. When it ends, both you and the Asperger’s child are totally exhausted. But... don’t breathe a sigh of relief yet. At the least provocation, for the remainder of that day -- and sometimes into the next - the meltdown can return in full force.

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Parenting Defiant Aspergers Teens

Although Aspergers is at the milder end of the autism spectrum, the challenges parents face when disciplining a teenager with Aspergers are more difficult than they would be with an average teen. Complicated by defiant behavior, the Aspergers teen is at risk for even greater difficulties on multiple levels – unless the parents’ disciplinary techniques are tailored to their child's special needs.

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Aspergers Children “Block-Out” Their Emotions

Parenting children with Aspergers and HFA can be a daunting task. In layman’s terms, Aspergers is a developmental disability that affects the way children develop and understand the world around them, and is directly linked to their senses and sensory processing. This means they often use certain behaviors to block out their emotions or response to pain.

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Older Teens and Young Adult Children With Aspergers Still Living At Home

Your older teenager or young “adult child” isn’t sure what to do, and he is asking you for money every few days. How do you cut the purse strings and teach him to be independent? Parents of teens with Aspergers face many problems that other parents do not. Time is running out for teaching their adolescent how to become an independent adult. As one mother put it, "There's so little time, yet so much left to do."

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Living with an Aspergers Spouse/Partner

Research reveals that the divorce rate for people with Aspergers is around 80%. Why so high!? The answer may be found in how the symptoms of Aspergers affect intimate relationships. People with Aspergers often find it difficult to understand others and express themselves. They may seem to lose interest in people over time, appear aloof, and are often mistaken as self-centered, vain individuals.

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Online Parent Coaching for Parents of Asperger's Children

If you’re the parent of a child with Aspergers or High-Functioning Autism, you know it can be a struggle from time to time. Your child may be experiencing: obsessive routines; problems coping in social situations; intense tantrums and meltdowns; over-sensitivity to sounds, tastes, smells and sights; preoccupation with one subject of interest; and being overwhelmed by even the smallest of changes.

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Unraveling The Mystery Behind Asperger's and High-Functioning Autism

Parents, teachers, and the general public have a lot of misconceptions of Asperger's and High-Functioning Autism. Many myths abound, and the lack of knowledge is both disturbing and harmful to kids and teens who struggle with the disorder.

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Parenting Children and Teens with High-Functioning Autism

Two traits often found in kids with High-Functioning Autism are “mind-blindness” (i.e., the inability to predict the beliefs and intentions of others) and “alexithymia” (i.e., the inability to identify and interpret emotional signals in others). These two traits reduce the youngster’s ability to empathize with peers. As a result, he or she may be perceived by adults and other children as selfish, insensitive and uncaring.

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