Search This Site

Pervasive Developmental Disorder—Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS)

Question

What is PDD-NOS, and how is it any different than Autism?

Answer

Pervasive Developmental Disorder—Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) is a pervasive developmental disorder (PDD)/autism spectrum disorder (ASD). PDD-NOS is one of five forms of Autism Spectrum Disorders. PDD-NOS is often referred to as atypical autism.

Many parents experience a lot of confusion about the diagnosis of autism or PDD-NOS. There is even a lot of confusion among physicians and diagnosticians themselves. Some pediatricians have been known to tell parents that “a diagnosis of PDD-NOS is reserved for children on the spectrum who are curable.” Other pediatricians have told parents that “PDD-NOS is not even on the spectrum!” Many clinicians seem to take a milder diagnosis and simply label it PDD-NOS.


Let’s look at Autism first…

A. To be diagnosed with autism, you must have:
  • At least SIX (6) of the below symptoms from categories (1), (2) and (3)
  • You must have TWO (2) symptoms from (1- Social)
  • And ONE (1) each from (2- Communication) and (3- Behaviors and Interests)
  • The other one (or more) can be from any of the categories

(1) SOCIAL

Social interaction is impaired; must have TWO from list of symptoms below:

(a) Problems with nonverbal behaviors such as eye contact, facial expression, body postures and gestures used in social situations

Examples:
  • Body Postures – may hold arms close to sides, may try to avoid certain types of social contact, may appear unapproachable due to posture
  • Eye contact – different from peers, may only meet eye-gaze of certain people or have total lack of eye contact – or anything in between
  • Facial expression – may seem inappropriate to what the situation warrants, may have blank gaze, may not greet you with a smile, may have same expression on face most of time – or any combination thereof
  • Gestures – may not respond to a hand held out to shake hands, arms out for hugs etc. May not understand social ‘cues’ we take for granted

(b) Does not make friends like other children in same age group

Examples:
  • Children learn to play by imitation; this child is not imitating the other kids
  • May approach peers, but not to play…watch and see if the child is approaching in the same way peers approach each other
  • Seems to have no interesting in socializing with peers
  • While peers are learning to play together, the child is off by themselves

(c) Does not share objects with others for enjoyment

Examples:
  • Does not bring you something that interests them to share with you
  • Does not point in the distance (i.e., to an airplane) to share with you something that interests them
  • Look at peers and how they show things they are proud of (e.g., artwork) and see if child does the same thing

(d) Lack of social (consisting in dealings or communications with others) and emotional (characterized by emotion) ‘give and take’; does not respond to social or emotional cues

Examples:
  • Does not attempt to comfort someone who is crying
  • Does not become grateful or excited in anticipation of outing or gift (in the same way a peer would)
  • Does not reply “hello” to your greeting (without prompting)
  • Does not seem especially happy to see you when you return home after work
  • Does not seem to pick up on the ‘vibes’ of others
  • Does not seem to seek out or enjoy the company of others; may be aloof
  • Does not smile back when you smile at him/her (without prompting)

(2) COMMUNICATION

Communication difficulties; must have at least ONE of the below symptoms:

(a) Delay in, or total lack of, speech, but does not use gestures to communicate (delay = not at same level as peers)

Example:
  • Does not ‘mime’ his/her needs (i.e., Mime ‘eating’ if hungry)
  • Does not point to what s/he wants
  • Does not shake or nod head for ‘no’ or ‘yes’
  • Does not shrug shoulders to show s/he ‘doesn’t know’

(b) If child can speak, cannot start or hold up their end of a conversation (appropriately)

(c) May echo phrases, words, songs, parts of movies etc.

(d) Does not engage in imaginative play (as peers)

Examples:
  • Will not make dolls ‘talk’ to each other
  • Will not pretend to brush doll’s hair
  • Will not pretend to drink from toy teacup
  • Will not take a toy airplane and ‘fly’ it around the room while saying ‘zoom’
  • Will not use items for make belief (i.e. a stick for a cane or a magic wand)

(3) BEHAVIORS AND INTERESTS

Repetitive behaviors, interests, and activities – child may get angry if this ‘pattern’ is interrupted; must have at least ONE of the below symptoms:

(a) Child is so focused on an interest that to remove the interest will result in a meltdown

(b) Routines or rituals must be followed; they appear to have no function

Examples:
  • Family members must always sit in same seats; failure may result in tantrum
  • If you go to the video store, you must rent “The Smurfs” every time or risk a tantrum
  • Lining up cars is not necessarily playing ‘garage’; if you attempt to join in, the child will tantrum, walk away, push you aside, etc.
  • Must take same route home; one deviation may cause meltdown
  • Must wear red shirt on Tuesday or risk a tantrum etc

(c) Repetitive behavior such as hand flapping, rocking, ear flicking, chewing on clothing, vocal ‘stims’, spinning etc. (establish if this is self-stimulatory by doing a functional assessment)

(d) Preoccupied with parts of objects

Examples:
  • Cover parts of book so that s/he can look at one piece
  • Focus on one part of a toy (i.e. doll’s eyes)
  • Spins wheels of toy cars

B. Child is either delayed (not same ‘age’ as peers) or acts differently from peers in ONE of the following (must be noticeable before age three): (1) social interaction, (2) language as used in social communication, or (3) pretend play

C. Child does NOT have Rett’s or Childhood Disintegrative Disorder

Treatment for autism is a very intensive, comprehensive undertaking that involves the youngster's entire family and a team of professionals. Some programs may take place in the home with professionals and trained therapists and may include Parent Training for the youngster under supervision of a professional. Some programs are delivered in a specialized center, classroom or preschool. Families usually decide on one plan of intervention that works best for them. Typical types of intervention are Applied behavior analysis (ABA), Pivotal response therapy (PRT), The P.L.A.Y. Project, Verbal Therapy, Floortime, Relationship Development Intervention (RDI), and The Son-Rise Program.


Next we will look at PDD-NOS…

PDD-NOS is a diagnosis by exclusion. If a child presents with some symptoms from (1), (2), and/or (3) above, and their pattern of symptoms is not better described by one of the other PDD diagnoses (i.e., Autism, Aspergers, Rett’s, or Childhood Disintegrative disorder) then a professional might decide that a diagnoses of PDD-NOS is warranted.

When comparing PDD-NOS to Autism, PDD-NOS is used when a child has symptoms of autism as above, but not in the configuration needed for an autism diagnosis. Social component is where the most impairment is seen. Children who fail to meet criteria for autism and don’t have adequate social impairment typically have a developmental disability, and their symptoms can be accounted for by that.

Looking at above description:

“299.00 Autism - To be diagnosed with autism, you must have at least 6 of the below symptoms from (1), (2) and (3). You must have two symptoms from (1) and one each from (2) and (3) – the other two can be any of the other symptoms.”

PDD-NOS is most often diagnosed when children have significant social impairments, but don’t have the symptoms in area (3). A child with PDD-NOS may have the same (or more, or less) number of symptoms as a child with autism, but instead of having 2 from #1 and one each from #2, the child might have 1 symptom from #1 and one from #2, plus two from #3.

PDD-NOS is typically diagnosed by psychologists and Pediatric Neurologists. No singular specific test can be administered to determine whether or not a youngster is on the spectrum. Diagnosis is made through observations, questionnaires, and tests. A mother or father will usually initiate the quest into the diagnosis with questions for their youngster's doctor about their youngster's development after noticing abnormalities. From there, doctors will ask questions to gauge the youngster’s development in comparison to age-appropriate milestones. One test that measures this is the Modified Checklist of Autism in Toddlers (MCHAT). This is a list of questions whose answers will determine whether or not the youngster should be referred to a specialist such as a Developmental pediatrician, a neurologist, a psychiatrist, or a psychologist.

Because PDD-NOS is a spectrum disorder, not every youngster shows the same signs. The two main characteristics of the disorder are difficulties with social interaction skills and communication. Signs are often visible in babies, but a diagnosis is usually not made until around age 4. Even though PDD-NOS is considered milder than typical autism, this is not always true. While some characteristics may be milder, others may be more severe.

Once a youngster with PDD-NOS enters school, he will often be very eager to interact with classmates, but may act socially different than peers and be unable to make genuine connections. As they age, the closest connection they make is typically with their mom and dad. Kids with PDD-NOS have difficulty reading facial expressions and relating to feelings of others. They do not know how to respond when someone is laughing or crying. Literal thinking is also characteristic of PDD-NOS. They are unable to understand figurative speech and sarcasm.

Inhibited communication skills are a sign of PDD-NOS that begins immediately after birth. As an infant, they will not babble, and as they age, they do not speak when age appropriate. Once verbal communication begins, their vocabulary is often limited. Some characteristics of language-based patterns are: repetitive or rigid language, narrow interests, uneven language development, and poor nonverbal communication. A very common characteristic of PDD-NOS is severe difficulty grasping the difference between pronouns, particularly between “you” and “me” when conversing. Difficulty with this would look something like this:

Parent: “Do you want to color this or do you want me to?”

Child: “Me.”

This “me” response would be because, since the mother or father spoke the word "me", the youngster thinks that "me" still applies to the parent. The youngster with autism cannot grasp - without intervention - that the pronoun assignment of “me” refers to the speaker, and not to whomever spoke it first.

A diagnosis of PDD-NOS is not necessarily a less-severe one than a diagnosis of autism, but can be sometimes. Severity of any spectrum disorder can be determined by the amount and severity of symptoms listed above.

It is imperative to obtain a thorough psychological assessment performed. If you do not understand during any part of the assessment, ask questions. You should feel comfortable to go home and ‘digest’ the information given to you, form any questions or concerns and contact the diagnosing clinician to get your answers.

Parent’s Tips for Teachers of Aspergers Students

Not all teachers are necessarily prepared to accommodate the Aspergers (high functioning autistic) student and her/his special needs, but most are willing to learn. As a parent, it is your responsibility to educate those who need to be “in-the-know” about the disorder.

Copy, paste, and print-out the information below, then “hand-deliver” this information sheet to your "Aspie’s" teacher. In this way, the teacher will have some initial steps to get the ball rolling (he/she will hopefully get more up-to-speed with special considerations as the school year progresses).

Aspergers Information Sheet:

Dear _____ (teacher’s name),

Please review the following “teacher’s tips.” They may prove to be very helpful in dealing with my Aspergers child – and may make your job a lot easier! Thank you.

Sincerely,

_____ (parent’s name)


1. An increase in unusual or difficult behaviors in my child probably indicates an increase in stress. Sometimes stress is caused by feeling a loss of control. When this occurs, a "safe place" or a "safe person" may come in handy, because many times the stress will only be alleviated when my child physically removes himself from the stressful event or situation. If this occurs, please set up a method to assist him in re-entering the stressful situation once he appears to be calmed down.

2. Aspergers children seem to have either the neatest or the messiest desks or lockers in the school. The one with the neatest desk or locker is probably very insistent on sameness and will be very upset if someone disturbs the order he has created. The one with the messiest desk will need your help in frequent cleanups of the desk or locker so that he may find things. At this point, I’m not sure whether my child will be “neat” or “messy.” If he is messy, please know that he is probably not making a conscious choice to be messy. He is most likely incapable of this organizational task without some specific training. Please train him in organizational skills using small, specific steps if needed.

3. Be as concrete as possible in most of your interactions with my child. Facial expression and other social cues may not work.

4. Be aware that normal levels of auditory and visual input can be perceived by my child as too much or too little. For example, the hum of fluorescent lighting is extremely distracting for some students with Aspergers. Consider environmental changes such as removing some of the "visual clutter" from the room or seating changes if he seems distracted or upset by his classroom environment.

5. Children with Aspergers often have trouble "getting" the teacher’s points. If repetitive verbal arguments or questions occur, consider the possibility that he is very concerned about the topic and does not know how to rephrase the question or comment to get the information he needs.

6. If my Aspergers child uses repetitive verbal arguments and/or repetitive verbal questions, try requesting that he write down the question or argumentative statement. Then write down your reply. As the writing continues, he usually begins to calm down and stops the repetitive activity. If that doesn't work, write down his repetitive verbal question or argument, and then ask him to formulate and write down a logical reply or a reply he thinks you would make. This distracts him from the escalating verbal aspect of the argument or question and sometimes gives his a more socially acceptable way of expressing his frustration or anxiety.

7. If my child doesn't seem to be able to learn a task, please break it down into smaller steps or present the task in several different ways (e.g., visually, verbally, physically).

8. If your class involves pairing-off or choosing partners, please either draw numbers or use some other arbitrary means of pairing – or ask an especially kind child if he or she would agree to choose my child as a partner. Please arrange this before the pairing is done. The child with Aspergers is most often the student left with no partners. This is unfortunate since these children could benefit most from having a partner.

9. In answering essay questions that require a synthesis of information, Aspergers students rarely know when they have said enough, or if they are properly addressing the core of the question. Please keep this in mind in your grading.

10. Most students with Aspergers use and interpret speech literally. Until you know the capabilities of my child, please avoid the following: (a) "cute" names (e.g., Pal, Buddy, Wise Guy, etc.), (b) double meanings (e.g., most jokes have double meanings), (c) idioms (e.g., save your breath, jump the gun, second thoughts, etc.), (d) nicknames, and (e) sarcasm (e.g., saying "Great!" after he has just spilled a bottle of ketchup on the table in the lunch room).

11. Please avoid “verbal overload.” You may want to use shorter sentences if you perceive that he doesn’t fully understand you. Although he has no hearing problem and may be paying attention, he may have a problem understanding your main point and identifying the important information.

12. Please avoid asking questions such as, "Why did you do that?" Instead, consider saying something like, "I didn't like the way you slammed your book down on the desk when I said it was time for gym. Please put your book down on the desk quietly and get up to leave for gym." This matter-of-fact approach will work best.

13. Please don't take misbehavior personally. The Aspergers student is not a manipulative, scheming child who is trying to make life difficult for you. Usually misbehavior is the result of efforts to survive experiences which may be confusing, disorienting, or frightening. Students with Aspergers tend to be egocentric and have extreme difficulty reading the reactions of others. They are literally incapable of being manipulative.

14. Prepare my child for all environmental and/or routine changes (e.g., assembly, substitute teacher, rescheduling, etc.). You may want to use a written or visual schedule to prepare him for the change.

15. Since Aspergers children experience various communication difficulties, please don't rely on my child to relay important messages to me about school events, assignments, school rules, etc. unless you try it on an experimental basis with follow-up, or unless you are already certain that he has mastered this skill. Even sending home a note may not work. He may not remember to deliver the note or may lose it before reaching home. A phone call to me may work best until this skill can be developed.

16. Students with Aspergers have problems with abstract and conceptual thinking. Some may eventually acquire a few abstract skills, but others never will. Please avoid abstract ideas when possible. When abstract concepts must be used, please use visual cues, such as gestures, or written words to augment the abstract idea.

17. Students with Aspergers have trouble with organizational skills, regardless of their intelligence and/or age. Even a "straight A" child with Aspergers who has a photographic memory can be incapable of remembering to bring a pencil to class or of remembering a deadline for an assignment. In such cases, please provide some aid in the least restrictive way possible. Strategies could include having my child put a picture of a pencil on the cover of his notebook or reminders at the end of the day of assignments to be completed at home. Also, please consider “praising” my child when he remembers something he has previously forgotten. This will help him remember even better the next time, which will save you from constant “reminders.”

18. When it comes to Aspergers children, behavior management works, but if incorrectly used, it can encourage robot-like behavior, provide only a short-term behavior change, or result in more aggression. Please use positive and chronologically age-appropriate behavior procedures.

For more information on teaching Aspergers students, please visit www.MyAspergersChild.com

Thank you for your kind consideration _____ (teacher’s name again).


The Potential Dangers Associated with the “Aspergers” Label

Many parents who have struggled with a child for several years feel a sense of relief when their child gets a “diagnosis.” The parent may say things like, “It was such a weight off my shoulders to finally understand why my child behaved the way he did. I thought it was my parenting, but now I see it was his disorder instead.”

Many adults who have had emotional problems and/or social difficulties over the years find it comforting to one day discover, “Oh, I have Aspergers! No wonder I haven’t been able to hold a job or find a girlfriend/boyfriend.”

Unfortunately (or fortunately as the case may be), finding solace in having a “disability” or “disorder” comes with a price – a much bigger price than most realize they have paid.

1. All ‘unwanted’ diagnostic features can be helped with therapy.

True, there are some potentially problematic cognitive and behavioral patterns associated with Aspergers that come with the “Aspergers-package” (e.g., insistence on routine, narrow range of interest, etc.). However, most – if not all – “problems” associated with Aspergers can be helped with therapy (e.g., social skills training for those who lack such skills, Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for those who suffer with Aspergers-related anxiety, etc.).

2. A self-fulfilling prophecy will manifest itself – either positively or negatively – when it comes to labels.

When one “buys in” to a label (e.g., Aspergers), the labeled individual begins to view her “self” in a different light. She “reframes” her identity such that her “diagnosis” becomes a part of who she is. The reframe, in and of itself, doesn’t come with any serious ramifications. However, with the new reframe comes a different way of thinking about “self” and others. This cognitive change results in a different way of feeling about “self” and others, which in turn results in a different way of behaving (or conducting one’s life). In other words, she begins to “live up to” her diagnosis, displaying more and more of the symptoms that are in alignment with the diagnostic features of her “disorder.” This is a self-fulfilling prophecy working toward “disability” rather than ability.

Conversely, many parents of Aspergers children who have sought counseling have been advised (by therapists who have experience with the Aspergers condition) to “reframe” Aspergers in a positive light, thus setting-up a self-fulfilling prophecy that works toward “ability” rather than disability. For example, when disclosing to her child that “there is this thing called Aspergers,” the parent may be instructed to do the following:

Lead with strengths. All children with Aspergers have significant areas of strength (even if this has not been translatable into tangible success yet). Bring up areas of strength with the child who is suspected of having Aspergers. Next, tactfully point out the areas in which he is struggling. Then, suggest to him that “there is this thing called Aspergers,” which is a confusing combination of strengths and challenges.

Think like a counseling psychologist for just a moment…

Words are important. Words change the way you think, feel and behave. Notice in the “reframes” above that there was never any mention of a “disability” or “disorder.” Also notice the statement “there is this thing called Aspergers.” This statement separates the ‘label’ from the ‘child’. Your child is not “an Asperger” – he is a “human being” who has a certain set of strengths and challenges.

In reframing, Aspergers is thought of as a “condition” replete with possibilities, strengths, and challenges that are able to be addressed sufficiently. In this state of mind, the child tends to view his “self” as “able” (and maybe even better off than the general population). With this mindset, the child – as an adult – may very well “set the world on fire” with his area of expertise (e.g., engineering, computer programming, etc.).

3. Labels tend to help the individual relinquish a level of responsibility.

If I receive the label of Aspergers, I can say to myself and others, “See, this is why I can’t - or don’t - do certain things. It’s not my fault – it’s my disability.” When others are in agreement that I am “not able,” I am free from meeting certain expectations from parents, teachers, employees, etc. I can safely lower my standards, settling for the “comfort zone” that comes with the assistance (or over-assistance) from others.

I have counseled hundreds of families who, for example, have a 26-year-old adult child with Aspergers who is still living at home playing video games all day. Why? The entire family “bought into” the “disability reframe” years ago. As a result, the child (now an adult) behaves in accordance with his label, even though - WITH THERAPY - this Aspie could be employed, happily married, and living in his own home.

Does all this mean we shouldn’t have any labels? Of course not! Without labels, we wouldn’t be able to conceptualize ‘clusters of characteristics’ (a set of symptoms that defines a particular mental/emotional/behavioral state). However, it is important to “reframe” the label as an ‘opportunity’ to ‘capitalize on strengths’ and ‘work on the areas that present challenges’. This use or words is empowering rather than debilitating, ability-based rather than disability-based, all of which helps the labeled individual to be all that he/she can be rather than settling for a life of mediocrity – or worse yet – hopelessness.

For those who want to hold onto the label “disability” – you should know exactly what you are settling for. As define by Wikipedia: “A disability is an umbrella term, covering impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions.”

Notice the ‘words’ above: impairments, limitations, restrictions.

Warning: Be careful about the words you use to describe your condition. Your words become your reality!

We polled a group of Aspergers teens and asked the question: Is Aspergers a “disability” or just a “difference”? Here are some of the initial responses:

I think it's only a disability because the world is not suited for us. Consider: What if all humans were born with crippled legs? We would all be on wheelchairs, and there would be no stairs, so what if a small portion of a population were born with functioning legs - they would have to adapt to a world not meant for legs but for wheels, no stairs, just ramps, they would obviously have some trouble with a lot of this, these fully functioning individuals are disabled, but only in the same way all humans are disabled and handicapped and an atmosphere without air, it doesn't mean there’s something inherently wrong with them. I certainly can't think of any of my issues that couldn't be solved by simply being an in more AS friendly world, no more bright lights and loud noises or eye contact.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

My version is just a difference. I am high functioning despite my issues and am not "disabled" in any part of my life that matters to me.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Maybe - like being tall? Standing alone, being tall is just a deviation, and therefore a difference from the average. You could even have a population of tall-only people in which they wouldn't stick out. However, being tall in a society of people who are shorter or even considerably shorter than you have a high potential of leading to problems, maybe even to the extent of being a disability. So, maybe like 'being tall' but perhaps in two or three different ways and the problems these features cause to the individual may augment each other.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Difference, I'm glad that I'm not NT. I would kill myself if I had to be one of those "gangster" people who have sex all day, get bad grades and graffiti everything in sight like they do. I like the way I am even if it is difficult to live with.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

A difference for me (but I'm very high functioning Aspie): I can do what other people do but with more effort, but NT can't do what I do, so... I win.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

I continually find myself disagreeing with people on this, often labeling us because of their own situations.... i.e... when children often have an associated condition with autism which courses a disability, they insist autism is the disability. I feel a more general positive use of how we are all described is vital to help phase out the old stereo type of what autism often is seen as by many.... as most of us know here those of us on the autism spectrum are as diverse and different as those that are not. The word disorder is often used and some are starting to use the word condition, my preference is still difference, as feel until our differences are fully understood, accepted and allowed, many will continue to feel they have a right to want us to conform to a stereo type imagine to suit them, not necessarily us!

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

I think it's a condition with both disabilities and things that are mere differences. So I think it can be misleading to say that it's all mere disability.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

I have no problem with the word disability, but unfortunately it tends to stereo type us even more than others already do, and gives a false misconception to many that we are all disabled, when many of us are not, many function extremely well, it’s just often as I see it anyway our difference so misunderstood.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

To me it’s nothing. I don't want anyone to know about my Aspergers and I don't want to be referred to by it at all.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

For some reason the people I talk to genuinely stumble over the "right" politically correct word. In that case, I'll accept just about any word they use because I know they're trying to courteous...

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

It’s always seems to be the D "disease", "disability", "disorder", "disadvantaged" my "D" has to be different, we are simply different and feel it’s about time people focus on how able we are, as everyone has strengths and weakness, and can all be able or disabled in many ways... ignorance disables other not on the spectrum seeing what able individuals we really are, after all some of the best minds on the planet are on the autism spectrum, but guess while there continues to be no fact we are mysteries as the universe to some.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

I think that it's a difference, and what can be different can be beautiful.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

As I see it, difference (neurodiversity) is more descriptive, while disability is more relational. In other words, disability can be socially defined as a lack of enablement by those in power.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

I can't help being irritated sometimes by the constant identity construction work done by people who identify with the Aspergers label. Whatever they think, or say or do, they always, always view it through the prism of AS. It is also clear that many carefully adjust their behavior to fit the predictions of the diagnosis. It is as if the diagnosis had become a full time job for them.
 

Resources for parents of children and teens with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's:

==> How To Prevent Meltdowns and Tantrums In Children With High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's

==> Parenting System that Significantly Reduces Defiant Behavior in Teens with Aspergers and High-Functioning Autism

==> Launching Adult Children with Asperger's and High-Functioning Autism: Guide for Parents Who Want to Promote Self-Reliance

==> Teaching Social Skills and Emotion Management to Children and Teens with Asperger's and High-Functioning Autism

==> Parenting Children and Teens with High-Functioning Autism: Comprehensive Handbook

==> Unraveling The Mystery Behind Asperger's and High-Functioning Autism: Audio Book

==> Highly Effective Research-Based Parenting Strategies for Children with Asperger's and High-Functioning Autism

My child has been rejected by his peers, ridiculed and bullied !!!

Social rejection has devastating effects in many areas of functioning. Because the ASD child tends to internalize how others treat him, rejection damages self-esteem and often causes anxiety and depression. As the child feels worse about himself and becomes more anxious and depressed – he performs worse, socially and intellectually.

Click here to read the full article…

How to Prevent Meltdowns in Children on the Spectrum

Meltdowns are not a pretty sight. They are somewhat like overblown temper tantrums, but unlike tantrums, meltdowns can last anywhere from ten minutes to over an hour. When it starts, the Asperger's or HFA child is totally out-of-control. When it ends, both you and your child are totally exhausted. But... don’t breathe a sigh of relief yet. At the least provocation, for the remainder of that day -- and sometimes into the next - the meltdown can return in full force.

Click here for the full article...

Parenting Defiant Teens on the Spectrum

Although Aspergers [high-functioning autism] is at the milder end of the autism spectrum, the challenges parents face when disciplining a teenager on the spectrum are more difficult than they would be with an average teen. Complicated by defiant behavior, the teen is at risk for even greater difficulties on multiple levels – unless the parents’ disciplinary techniques are tailored to their child's special needs.

Click here to read the full article…

Older Teens and Young Adult Children with ASD Still Living At Home

Your older teenager or young “adult child” isn’t sure what to do, and he is asking you for money every few days. How do you cut the purse strings and teach him to be independent? Parents of teens with ASD face many problems that other parents do not. Time is running out for teaching their adolescent how to become an independent adult. As one mother put it, "There's so little time, yet so much left to do."

Click here to read the full article…

Parenting Children and Teens with High-Functioning Autism

Two traits often found in kids with High-Functioning Autism are “mind-blindness” (i.e., the inability to predict the beliefs and intentions of others) and “alexithymia” (i.e., the inability to identify and interpret emotional signals in others). These two traits reduce the youngster’s ability to empathize with peers. As a result, he or she may be perceived by adults and other children as selfish, insensitive and uncaring.

Click here
to read the full article...

Highly Effective Research-Based Parenting Strategies for Children with Asperger's and HFA

Become an expert in helping your child cope with his or her “out-of-control” emotions, inability to make and keep friends, stress, anger, thinking errors, and resistance to change.

Click here for the full article...

My Aspergers Child - Syndicated Content